BREATHER
VALVES

Breather Valves, also known as Pressure Relief Valves, prevent excessive pressure or vacuum buildup in sealed containers, which reduces container weight and cost.

breather valve related posts
WHY USE BREATHER VALVES?

In the packaging of missiles, engines and delicate electronic gear, it is essential to protect equipment from the effects of moisture. In order to accomplish this, the shipping and/or storage containers must be tightly sealed and desiccated. However, these containers may be exposed to pressure and vacuum differentials of as much as 5.7 psid (pounds per square inch differential) due to temperature and/or altitude changes. To resist pressures of this magnitude, the container would need to be constructed from a very strong material, which would make it bulky, heavy and costly to store and ship.

This problem can be overcome by the use of a “controlled breathing” system, known as Breather Valves or Pressure Relief Valves. These low-pressure, high-flow Breather Valves automatically adjust the container pressure with respect to environmental pressure changes and prevent excessive pressure differentials during air or high altitude truck or rail transport (Fig. 1). As a result, the use of a Breather Valve can save on the initial cost of building the container and throughout the container’s life by reducing the cost of transport and storage.

At one time, “free-breathing” containers were considered an alternative solution to this problem. The theory, based on Ficke’s Law, was that moisture would not pass freely through tubes with lengths 10 or more times their diameters. However, this principle applies only when there is no pressure differential between the two ends of the tube. The method was found to be unsatisfactory in actual practice. In fact, in tests conducted by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command, the average water gain in three free-breathing containers was over six times greater than a controlled breathing container with a Breather Valve which sealed at 0.5 psid pressure and 1.0 psid vacuum (see the McDermit Report).

HOW BREATHER VALVES PROTECT

How will Breather Valves protect the contents of a container from moisture intrusion? The answer to this question depends on five factors:

1.) Pressure & Vacuum Settings

Breather Valves are made in a variety of settings, ranging from 0.2 psid to 5.0 psid or more. These settings, which are the points at which the valves seal, must be at least 1.0 psi to 1.5 psi below the pressure or vacuum which the container can safely withstand without leaking or deforming (see Selection below). Generally speaking, the lower the valve setting, the more often the valve will open, admitting outside atmosphere and shortening the life of the desiccant.

2.) Temperature Variations

The number of times a Breather Valve will open during storage depends not only on the valve setting, but also on the magnitude and frequency of temperature variations which may occur in a particular storage area. In sealed containers there is a pressure change ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 psi for each 30°F temperature change (Fig. 2).

Long-term tests, which have been run on containers at AGM’s plant in Tucson, Arizona, indicate that valves with sealing pressures of 0.25 psid will open almost every day, while valves set to reseal at 0.5 psid may open up to 150 times a year, and valves set for 1.0 psid rarely open during storage. (It should be noted that these tests were run on rigid wall containers, and that low-setting valves on plastic containers with flexible walls will probably not open as often under the same conditions.)

There are only a few locations in the world other than Tucson where greater diurnal temperature variations occur. Therefore, under worldwide storage conditions, valves with a 0.5 psid reseal in both directions will open no more than 200 times a year, and valves set for a 1.0 psid reseal in both directions will probably open less than a dozen times.

3.) Temperature vs. Humidity

In addition to the number of times the Breather Valve opens, the amount of moisture taken into the container at each opening (or “gulp”) will determine desiccant life, and this is dependent on the climatic conditions of the storage area. There are places in the world where as much as 0.015 grams of water per container cubic foot could be taken in at each “gulp.” (Reference NavWeps Report 8374, Table XII). However, high humidity tends to limit temperature variations (Fig. 3), so that even Breather Valves with very low settings will probably not open more than 2 or 3 times a year in these locations.

4.) Number of Airlifts

For each descent from 10.7 psia (normal pressurization level in an aircraft cargo compartment) to 14.7 psia (sea level), a Breather Valve set for 0.5 psid reseal in both directions will take in approximately 0.055 grams of water per cubic foot of container volume. Higher or lower valve settings will not substantially vary the amount of moisture gain per descent. Therefore, the amount of desiccant needed will, in part, depend on the number of airlifts anticipated.

5.) Amount of Desiccant

It has been noted above that in ground storage, each time a container must breathe it will take in as much as 0.015 grams of water per cubic foot, and during each air descent in a pressurized cargo compartment it will take in as much as 0.013 grams of water per cubic foot. Since MIL-STD-2073-I requires 1.2 units of desiccant per cubic foot in a sealed rigid metal container (plus additional amounts for dunnage, if any) and one unit of desiccant will hold 6.0 grams of water at 40% relative humidity (RH) at 77°F, this amount of desiccant will protect the container for a total of 480 “gulps” in ground storage, or a total of 550 airlifts, or some combination of the two.

Keeping the above factors in mind, we see that a Breather Valve, properly selected and used in conjunction with adequate desiccant, can provide years of moisture protection in a lightweight, low cost container.

SELECTING THE RIGHT VALVE

The Breather Valve must perform two functions: limit the amount of moisture that can enter the container, and protect the container itself from excessive pressure or vacuum differentials. Therefore, the ideal valve should remain sealed except for during airlift or under extreme temperature changes, but when open should have sufficient flow to relieve air pressure as fast as it builds up. As noted under “Temperature Variation During Storage,” it has been shown that valves set as low as +0.5 (pressure) and -0.5 (vacuum) psid will protect against excessive moisture intrusion for years. In order to select a valve which will adequately protect the container against excessive pressure or vacuum, we must know the following:

1. How Much Pressure or Vacuum Can The Container Withstand Without Leaking or Deforming

This figure (Fig. 4) will establish the pressure at which the valve must achieve its rated flow, which is measured at 1.5 psi above the reseal setting. If possible, a safety factor should be utilized by setting the required flow pressure slightly below the container’s deformation point.

IMPORTANT: Most containers can withstand more pressure than vacuum. For instance, the container pictured in Fig. 4 is normally pressurized to 5 psi and can probably withstand an internal pressure of up to 50 psi without deformation. However, it took less than 3 psi of vacuum, resulting from a temperature drop of 90°F during surface transport of this empty unpressurized container to cause the deformation shown.

For this reason, a pressure setting somewhat higher than the vacuum setting is often specified to provide a sufficient differential without overstressing the container. However, too great a differential (more than 3 psi) between the pressure and vacuum settings can cause valve design problems and increased cost. If a differential greater than 3 psi is required, 2 one-way valves should be used. It should be remembered that a total differential in sealing pressures of 1 to 2 psi will provide more than adequate moisture protection worldwide.

2.) What Is the Effective Volume of the Container

It is essential to know how much air, in cubic feet, will be inside the container. This may be calculated by subtracting the volume of the contents (engine, missile, etc.) from the inside volume of the container.

3.) How Rapid a Change in Pressure Might be Encountered?

The highest rate of pressure change will usually occur during the depressurizing and repressurizing of an aircraft’s cargo compartment during air transport. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Standard Specification 80/2, “Pressure Equalization Requirements for Aircraft and Shipping Containers (Par. 3.2),” the cargo compartment pressure decreases from standard sea level (14.7 lbs./in.²) to minimum cruise altitude equivalent of 8,500 feet (10.7 lbs./in²) at a maximum climb rate of 2,500 feet per minute and increases back to sea level at a maximum descent rate of 1,500 feet per minute. IATA also specifies (Par. 6.2.3) that Breather Valves shall ensure a minimum air flow of 12% per minute of the internal container volume. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Specification AS27166 (which replaces cancelled military specification MIL-V-27166) “Valve, Pressure Equalizing, Gaseous Products,” also specifies 12% as a minimum flow rate, but subtracts the volume of the material in the container, resulting in the following formula (Par. 3.6.3.1):

Minimum Flow Rate (ft.³/min.) = (Vc-Vm)*0.12″
Where Vc = Volume of container (ft.³)
and Vm = Volume (min.) of material in container (ft.³)

It should be emphasized that this is a maximum, and would tend to be reduced by other factors, such as temperature change and elasticity of the container, so no additional safety factors need to be added. However, where there is a possibility that an empty container could be transported by air, it might be wise to disregard the displacement of the contents and use the internal volume of the empty container as the basis for calculating flow requirements.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - CRACKING PRESSURE

Sometimes we are asked to supply a valve that will “crack” (start to open) at a specified pressure, within a tolerance. While this requirement can be met, it involves additional testing and, therefore, increased cost, and – except under extraordinary circumstances – would appear to be unnecessary, since the settings for seal and design flow provide the desired protection for both container and contents. In addition, SAE Specification AS27166 sets maximum cracking pressure offsets from the reseal pressure.

What about sand and dust protection?

SAE Specification AS27166 requires that Breather Valves must still reseal after being tested for sand and dust protection per MIL-STD-810. The sand used in the test is similar to talcum powder, too fine to affect the sealing surfaces of the valve. However, the specification does not require the valve to keep sand and dust out of the container if it opens during a dust storm. This technicality has made it possible for valves with stamped or wire mesh screens to certify as meeting the specification.

For total sand and dust protection, you need to specify AGM Breather Valve series TA330TA333-R or TA770-R, as these valves have dust baffles and covers that will protect the contents of the container from not only sand and dust, but also wind-driven rain and water from high-pressure decontamination hoses.

SELECTION

Now that you have established the design flow rate and the reseal pressure (which is 1.0 to 1.5 psi below the flow rate pressure), you may proceed to actual selection of the Breather Valve you will need.

The Breather Valve Selection Chart (Fig. 5) will give you the flow rates of the various Breather Valves listed on this website, and indicate maximum net volumes of containers they may be used on.

Each Breather Valve data sheet includes a Part Number Designation Chart which shows how to designate the desired resealing pressures in the part number of the valve. Dimensions, performance characteristics and optional features, such as a manual release button (essential for breaking a vacuum seal) and RFI/EMI shielding, are also indicated.

SPECIFICATIONS & REQUIREMENTS

SAE Specification AS27166, entitled “Valve: Pressure Equalizing, Gaseous Products,” details environmental requirements and the procedures for vibration, temperature, salt, fog, sand and dust, rough handling, etc., as well as settings and flow. (Note: Many design activities have found it impractical to use the settings designated in this specification and have called out other settings more suitable for their particular container design.) AGM Breather Valve Series TA238TA240-RTA330TA333-R and TA770-R will meet all requirements of this specification (see Environmental Protection, above). AS27166 is also referenced in Department of Defense MIL-STD-648C.

In addition, AGM’s Breather Valves are specified on more than 300 Army, Navy and Air Force drawings.

If you require identification of AGM Breather Valves with a part number other than one shown on this website, please contact AGM for part number verification. You should also contact AGM if you plan to put one of AGM’s catalog numbers on a document requiring MIL-STD-130 identification.

If you have special requirements which cannot be met by using a standard valve, please contact AGM’s design engineering team regarding possible modifications or a special valve design to meet your needs.

MOUNTING

Unless otherwise specified, all valves are supplied with a nut, washer and gasket for mounting through a hole on a flat, smooth surface. Valve gaskets may not provide a proper seal if the mounting surface is curved or rough. Valves can also be installed in a mounting flange or a threaded boss when a suitable counter bore has been provided for thread relief.

IMPORTANT: Every AGM Breather Valve is individually tested and certified for compliance to performance requirements.

BREATHER VALVE APPLICATIONS

Shown here are just a few of the many containers currently in use that incorporate AGM Breather Valves, as well as other AGM products (Humidity IndicatorsRecords HoldersDesiccators and Tie Downs).

AGM Breather Valves have permitted many new and radical container designs using a variety of materials.  Substantial weight and cube reductions have been achieved, resulting in impressive savings in fabrication and shipping costs.

M16 RIFLE CONTAINER

Uses TA333-R Valve; also Humidity Indicator.
(Photo courtesy of Hardigg Industries Inc.)

SINGLE MISSILE CONTAINER

Uses TA333-R Valve.
(Photo courtesy of U.S. Army)

PERSONNEL CARRIER ENGINE / TRANSMISSION CONTAINER

Uses TA330 Valve; also Desiccant Port and Humidity Indicator.
(Photo courtesy of U.S. Army)

TRANSIT CASE

Uses TA333-R Valve.
(Photo courtesy of Zero Corporation)

F100 ENGINE CONTAINER

Uses TA770-R Valves; Also Desiccant Port, Records Holder and Humidity Indicator.
(Photo courtesy of Plastics Research Corporation)

PHOENIX MISSILE CONTAINER

Uses TA440-R Valve; also Desiccant Port, Records Holder and Tie Down Straps.
(Photo courtesy of Raytheon and U.S. Navy)

BREATHER VALVES F.A.Q.

Yes, but valves with a manual release button can also be opened manually to equalize pressure.

No, not unless you push the manual release button (only on those valves that have a manual release button). In automatic mode, they will equalize only to the level of the reseal pressure. That is, a TA333-05-05-R breather valve will only equalize to within 0.5 psid because below that the valve will be closed.

It depends. There are three common ways that liquid water can enter through a breather valve: submersion in water, directed streams of water (washdowns), and wind-driven rain.

For submersion, the valve will not open if the reseal pressure of the valve exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of the water plus any vacuum that has built up inside the container. For instance, at a water depth of one meter, the hydrostatic pressure is approximately 1.4 psi. Therefore, a valve with a reseal pressure of at least 1.5 psid will prevent water intrusion at a depth of one meter, subject to the following qualification. If the container has developed a vacuum due to a temperature change, or due to a pressure change from land or air transport, the valve could still inhale water. For example, a container with a vacuum of 0.5 psi that is submerged in water until its breather valve is one meter deep will need a valve with a reseal pressure of at least 2.0 psid, because it needs to withstand 0.5 psi vacuum plus 1.4 psi hydrostatic pressure.

Note that submerging a warm container in cold water will develop a vacuum inside the container. If your container is subject to this condition, contact an AGM engineer for assistance in calculating its effect on your container.

For a valve subjected to a washdown, the breather valve’s cover configuration and vacuum setting determines whether it is susceptible to water ingress. An AGM breather valve with a solid cover and a nominal cracking pressure in the vacuum direction (i.e., the inward flow direction) of at least 1.0 psid will repel water entry from a directed stream of water. AGM valves with a solid cover include the following: TA333-R, TA330, TA770-R, and TA225. On the other hand, valves without a solid cover, such as TA238-R, TA240-R, TA292-R, and TA294-R valves, as well as competitors’ valves with only a screen over the valve opening, could allow water from a directed stream of water to enter during a container washdown.

Finally, for the condition of wind-driven rain, an AGM breather valve with a solid cover will repel wind-driven rain even when the valve is inhaling. AGM’s unique cover design forces the airstream through two 180° turns, thereby causing most water droplets to fall out of the air stream. By contrast, a breather valve without a solid cover will repel wind-driven rain only when the valve is closed. This type of valve could allow rain to enter during the brief instances when the valve is inhaling.

Note that the passage of liquid water through a valve is only one of the two ways that moisture commonly enters a container. The more common way for moisture to enter a container is in the form of water vapor, which is entrained in the air that the valve inhales, and also permeates through a container’s seals. Contact an AGM engineer for assistance in determining how to protect your container’s contents against this type of water ingress.

No. AGM breather valves are small mechanical systems where a spring pushes a seal onto a seat. Due to the surface energy forces of the elastomeric seals, it will always require slightly more force to open the valve than to close it. Therefore, the opening pressure will be slightly higher than the reseal pressure. Also, the higher the setting of the valve, the greater the difference between the opening and closing pressures.

We have made valves with reseal pressures as high as 10 psid. However, these valves are difficult to work with and the settings may tend to shift after long periods of time and large temperature changes, but they will continue to perform their basic function.